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Geochemical and Microbiological Processes that Affect Migration and Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Fractured-Sedimentary Rock — Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Research Site, West Trenton, NJ

USGS scientists will update research progress through several presentations at the National Groundwater Association (NGWA) Conference on Groundwater in Fractured Rock, September 28-29, 2015 in Burlington, Vermont. Project scientist Paul Hsieh will present the conference keynote address: "Flow and Transport in Fractured Rocks — Retrospective and Look Ahead."

Recent Publications:

synthesis of core vocs and logsSynthesis of rock core VOCs with borehole logging and hydrogeologic framework: J. Contaminant Hydrology article by Goode and others, 2014. slug testing at NAWCTransmissivity and storage coefficient estimation by slug testing: USGS report by Fiore, 2014.
Carbon isotope changesCarbon isotopes of VOCs, microbial community, and deuterium tracer used to evaluate bioaugmentation in fractured rock: J. Contaminant Hydrology article by Révész and others, 2014. gene PCR NAWCBiogeochemistry and genetics of acetylene fermentation: Geomicrobiology Journal article by Miller and others, 2013.
Heating SimulationDNAPL remediation by thermal conductive heating in fractured rock: ESTCP report by Lebrón and others, 2013. TCE degradation ratesSite-scale TCE degradation rates from cisDCE and Chloride production: Remediation journal article by Chapelle and others, 2012.
SIR 2012-5032 coverVinyl chloride and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE) degradation under 'Anoxic' conditions: USGS report by Bradley, 2012. Block diagram of shallow rockReductive dechlorination requires threshold amounts of organic carbon: Remediation journal article by Chapelle and others, 2012.
NAWC well locationsBiostimulation and bioaugmentation field experiments show increased cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cisDCE) degradation: Remediation journal article by Bradley and others, 2012. Mass removed by pump & treatContaminant removal during 15 years of pump & treat remediation: USGS report by Lacombe, 2011.
Interpreted geophysical cross sectionMapping, coring, and surface geophysics characterize geologic framework: Journal of Applied Geophysics article by Ellefsen and others, 2012. 14C labeled degradation productsDistinct vinyl chloride and cis-dichloroethene degradation under low- and no-oxygen conditions: Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation journal article by Bradley and Chapelle, 2011.
Cover of GWMRHydrogeologic framework developed for understanding three-dimensional flow in dipping fractured rocks: Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation journal article by Lacombe and Burton, 2010. 3D aquifer-test modelMulti-well shutdown tests are a cost-effective method for characterizing the hydraulics of heterogeneous fractured rock: Ground Water journal article by Tiedeman and others, 2010.
Multi-level well & biodegradation zonesProtocol validated for assessing biodegradation in fractured-rock aquifers: Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation journal article by Bradley and others, 2009. Indicators for the bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon: Ground Water journal article by Chapelle and others, 2009.

In 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began studies of contamination in fractured-sedimentary bedrock in cooperation with the U.S. Navy at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), West Trenton, N.J.

In 2001, the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program initiated research at the NAWC to complement and expand the research being conducted on groundwater flow and contaminant transport in fractured bedrock at its Mirror Lake, New Hampshire Research Site. The NAWC site was chosen because the general hydrogeologic framework was well defined and the site contained extensive contamination over a range of geochemical conditions. Site groundwater contains volatile organic compounds (VOC's) that include trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride.

The research will provide understanding of the physical, chemical, and microbial processes that affect the transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifers, including the role of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) as a long-term source. The research also will develop methods for cost-effective subsurface characterization.

Research at the site is a multidisciplinary, collaborative effort that presently involves scientists from the USGS, U.S. Navy, and several academic and private research institutions.

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