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Aquifer and Well Characteristics in New Jersey
Aquifer Name and Description
Aquifer Withdrawls in 1980 (Mgal/d)
Coastal Plain Aquifers
Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system: Sand, quartz, fine to coarse grained, pebbly; local clay beds. Unconfined.
Ground water occurs generally under water-table conditions. Aquifer system extends from southern Monmouth County to Delaware Bay and from 12 mi. southeast of the Delaware River to the Atlantic Ocean. Aquifer thickness can exceed 350 ft. Brackish and salty water may occur in coastal areas.
Atlantic City 800-foot sand: Sand, quartz, medium to coarse grained, gravel, fragmented shell material. Confined.
Principal confined artesian aquifer supplying water along the barrier beaches in Cape May, Atlantic, and Ocean Counties. Aquifer thickness generally ranges between 100 and 150 ft. Water quality suitable for most purposes.
Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer: Sand, quartz, slightly glauconitic, very fine to coarse grained, layers of shells. Confined.
Important confined aquifer in the northeast and southwest part of the Coastal Plain. Aquifer thickness generally range between 60 and 120 ft. Water quality suitable for most purposes.
Englishtown aquifer: Sand, quartz, fine to medium grained, local clay beds. Confined.
Important source of water for Ocean and Monmouth Counties. Confined aquifer thickness generally range between 60 and 140 ft. Excellent water quality.
Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system: Alternating layers of sand, gravel, silt, and clay. Confined.
Highly productive and most used confined aquifer in the Coastal Plain. Aquifer system extends throughout Coastal Plain and attains maximum thickness of 4,100 ft. Includes two aquifers in northern Coastal Plain: Farrington and Old Bridge aquifers. Salty water increases with depth and in downdip direction. Excellent water quality but large iron concentrations in some areas.
Non-Coastal Plain Aquifers
Glacial valley-fill aquifers: Sand, gravel, interbedded silt and clay. Generally unconfined except where overlain by lake silt and clay or till.
North of terminal moraine occur principally as channel fill in preglacial stream valleys; south of moraine, as outwash plains and valley trains. Important aquifers in Bergen. Essex and Morris Counties. Water quality suitable for most uses.
Aquifers in the Newark Group: Shale and sandstone: Shale, sandstone, some conglomerate. Unconfined to partially confined in upper 200 ft; confined at greater depth.
Most productive aquifers in Essex, Passaic and Union Counties. Water generally hard; may have large concentrations of iron and sulfate. Saltwater has intruded areas of large ground-water withdrawal near bays and estuaries.
Valley and Ridge sedimentary units: Predominantly limestone and shale; some dolomite, calcareous sandstone and siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate and slate. Confined and unconfined.
Highest yields from cavernous limestones and in weathered and fractured zone within 300 ft. of land surface. Locally excessive iron, hardness, and low pH.
Highlands crystalline units: Gneiss, marble, quartzite, pegmatite; some schist, amphibolite and granite. Includes thin belts of conglomerate, sandstone, not significant as aquifers. Confined and unconfined.
Most water obtained from weathered and fractured zone in upper 300 ft; high yields in or near major fault zones. Excellent source of water for domestic use in some areas.